Why San Miguel de Allende is an “island” in the state with the most murders in Mexico and how it became a world tourist destination

Among the picturesque streets of San Miguel de Allende, one has to dodge the hundreds of tourists who take selfies in front of the beautiful colonial corners of this municipality in central Mexico.

The cobbled avenues, its art galleries, charming restaurants and colorful houses have made this place a paradise for anyone. instagrammer.

Also that of thousands of foreigners, especially American retirees, who have turned this municipality into their second or even first home, attracted by a pleasant climate and prices much lower than those of their country.

Because the fame of San Miguel has transcended borders. Last year, was distinguished as the best city in the world for the magazine Travel+Leisure and readers of the tourist environment Conde Nast Traveler.

However, it is striking that not many kilometers away and in the same state of Guanajuato are some of the municipalities considered to be the most violent in Mexico. This is, in fact, the entity of the country where the most homicides were registered last year.

How does this paradise for tourism manage to escape the wave of violence that is hitting some neighboring areas?

Foreigners and security

Sitting in a restaurant in the central square of San Miguel de Allende, the American Malcolm Halliday tastes something as Mexican as an Aztec soup.

In front of him, a group of tourists photographs the striking neo-Gothic cathedral that has become the symbol of the city. “It’s like the Disney castle.” says a gaping boy.

Mark Gonzalez / BBC

Halliday arrived in San Miguel almost five years ago attracted by the cultural life. “I love the city and the atmosphere. In the US, we also have violence in some cities, but the truth is that we don’t have much of a problem here, ”he tells BBC Mundo in correct Spanish.

Louise Gilliam, also an American and a resident of San Miguel, agrees. “In all my time here, I have never experienced any violence. I lived in Chicago, in New York, in Los Angeles… And I was careful not to go to dangerous areas. Wherever you go, you will find crime if you are not careful, ”she assures in English.

They do acknowledge that their family and friends were concerned when they learned of their intention to settle in central Mexico.

States of Mexico with the most intentional homicides (2021).  .  .

“Many foreigners are surprised. They think that when it gets dark, they can’t go out here. It is a paradigm that they bring, and then they see the reality. It’s like giving them the confidence that si we are part of Mexico, but not at the same time”, he tells BBC World Tanya Castillo, Director of Tourism of San Miguel de Allende.

But the municipality, which was once one of the key stages of the Mexican War of Independence and which hosted some of the conspiracy meetings in the fight against the Spanish, has not always been an attraction for tourists.

At the beginning of the 20th century, in fact, it was about to become a ghost town by the various armed conflicts that plagued the region. It was in the 1930s and 1940s that artists and promoters began to arrive, founding art schools and galleries that gradually attracted American students and expatriates.

San Miguel de Allende

Mark Gonzalez / BBC

According to the person in charge of tourism in San Miguel, what makes it one of the best destinations in the world today is its architecture and multitude of temples, its gastronomic, artistic, vineyard and luxury hotel offerings, together with the lifestyle that “mixes the cosmopolitan with the life of small Mexican towns”, he assures.

“An island” in Guanajuato

In a patrol carried out by the municipality together with the police to learn about the security situation, the local agent Esteban López says that most of his actions are “minor reports” to deal with cases of people who argue or drink alcohol on the street.

“Let us imagine that we are like an island. So, everything bad happens around ”, he summarizes to BBC Mundo.

Esteban Lopez

Mark Gonzalez / BBC
Esteban López, a San Miguel de Allende police officer, assures that his actions are usually for minor reports.

Indeed, just 50 km away from San Miguel, there is one of the 50 most violent municipalities in Mexico, where the government deployed a strategy to reduce the number of homicides, as is the case of Celaya or León, and whose murder figures are up to 20 times higher.

Municipalities of Mexico with more intentional homicides vs.  San Miguel de Allende (2021).  (in red those of the state of Guanajuato).  .

But the main reason why San Miguel escapes the process of violence in Guanajuato is because it is not located in the hydrocarbon extraction corridor that crosses part of the state.

“The milking of these pipelines is what generates the violence for the control of this illegal market. San Miguel is close, but it does not go through there, ”says the security expert Victor Sanchez.

This diagonal, also known as the “Bermuda Triangle”, is made up of fifteen municipalities through which the pipelines of Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) pass, transporting fuel throughout the country.

Bermuda Guanajuato triangle map


Although in the past they were mainly dominated by the Santa Rosa de Lima cartel, the arrest of their leader, “el Marro”, in 2020 caused him to lose strength in most of the municipalities that are now disputed with cells of the Sinaloa cartel, Jalisco New Generation (CJNG) or New Plaza.

Although, in addition to its geographical location, there are some peculiarities of San Miguel’s infrastructure that could make it less attractive to criminal groups.

“Its architectural characteristics prevent it from being a city with certain development plans. When a municipality does not have highways, it does not have a supply center and it is not a material collection center that has to be receiving trucks, does not have the necessary infrastructure for distribution of prohibited things“says its mayor, Mauricio Trejo.

“We are a bubble within the state,” he says proudly.

San Miguel de Allende

Mark Gonzalez / BBC

No disputes between cartels

According to Sánchez, another key factor to explain the absence of violence is that “there is no open dispute between various criminal organizations, as we do see in other municipalities. The region from the center to the north (from Guanajuato), where San Miguel is, It is an area completely controlled by the CJNG.”

And according to the expert, this leads to two hypotheses. The first: that, as in so many tourist corridors, criminal groups sell illegal products such as drugs on a small scale, taking advantage of the presence of tourists and foreign residents.

“The criminal organization is interested in not driving away those buyers with high purchasing power. If there starts to be violence in the area, the tourists will stop coming.” underlines.

The second hypothesis, linked to the previous one, is that “since there is a significant monetary flow, businesses such as hotels or restaurants with cash operations can lend themselves to being money laundering points for the organization that controls the municipality and, therefore, they also want to keep it peaceful so as not to draw the attention of the authorities.”

San Miguel de Allende

Mark Gonzalez / BBC

The mayor, however, denies the presence of the CJNG or any other organization in San Miguel de Allende.

“We have not detected interference from any criminal group. We have not been pressured or threatened by any group,” states emphatically.

“However, drug dealing issues that can occur in the municipality are attacked by the Municipal Police and drug addiction prevention and complaint programs,” he acknowledges. “But the profile of the tourists we have is different, they come here looking for culture.”

Some of those tourists, like Aarón González from Mexico City, believe that everything is due “to agreements between the authorities and the groups, because obviously they cannot have complete control, and the government cannot control them either. Or maybe you can but he is not interested because there are interests and they prefer to have their arrangements”, he says sitting on a bench in the central park and enjoying the music of mariachis with his wife when night falls.

San Miguel de Allende

Mark Gonzalez / BBC

Several neighbors who wanted to keep their names anonymous mentioned to BBC Mundo the existence of extortion practices, pressures or “floor collection” towards merchants in the municipality.

“I had a friend with a small business, but it occurred to her to sell [droga] there, and today he no longer has a business, nor is she. They told her that she either paid for her place or nothing for her. They give you money if you enter the business, but then you have to pay back. He didn’t pay, and that’s what they did to him.” tells Paula Colunga from her ice cream stand [hielo con jarabe de sabores] in front of the cathedral.

But the mayor assures that no merchant has informed him that they are currently suffering extortion. “It may be that they still feel that offense from when they were charged, although when we entered [al gobierno municipal] we detected that the majority were not due to criminal groups but to corrupt authorities, who have already been fired [despedidos] or they are under investigation”, he tells BBC Mundo.

security strategy

For Mayor Trejo, is your municipal security strategy the one that explains why San Miguel de Allende avoids the violence that permeates much of Guanajuato.

Among other factors, it highlights having an advanced C4 surveillance center, as well as the training and compensation of the local police, “the best paid in the state and one of the best paid in the entire country,” he says.

“We also help each other with nearby municipalities to prevent the ‘cockroach effect’ from arising and that, every time there is an operation in a nearby city, criminals are allowed to come to San Miguel to take refuge,” he explains.


Mark Gonzalez / BBC

For security analyst Víctor Sánchez, however, “it would be difficult to attribute a success story in San Miguel to the action of the authorities, because if it depended on it, they would have looked for how to replicate it in neighboring citiesace where security is a major failure.”

Instead, it insists that the real motives lie in issues beyond the city council’s role, such as the absence of rival criminal groups in the municipality, its mere geographic location, or that, due to the high concentration of foreigners and tourists, “it works better if it is pacified”.

But the presence of foreigners of more than 60 nationalities -around 10% of its 180,000 inhabitants- has also had another effect in San Miguel de Allende, as in so many cities that live this reality: the increase in rents and many services such as bars and restaurants.

“For many people it is not an economic problem, but perhaps for those who originally lived here it is challenging because the price of everything is rising. We’ll see… I can’t cure all problems I’m making the most of life here,” says American Malcolm Halliday with a shrug.

Malcolm Halliday

Mark Gonzalez / BBC
Malcolm Halliday, an American, acknowledges that the presence of foreigners raised prices for the local population.

Although as usual, this arrival of people with more purchasing power also has advantages. As Paula, the ice cream vendor, acknowledges, Mexicans who work for foreigners in the municipality usually receive better wages. “It is wrong for me to say it, but it is so. The Mexicans, on the other hand, the less we pay people, the better.”

Another Saint Michael

The thousands of foreigners who live in San Miguel de Allende also leave another mark on the municipality. They are the founders of dozens of NGOs that bring from education to dental health to neighbors with more economic needs.

Because, far from the beautiful architecture and luxury hotels frequented by tourists, San Miguel hides a very different reality as soon as one moves away a few minutes from the historic center towards more rural neighborhoods.

American retirees in San Miguel de Allende

Mark Gonzalez / BBC
San Miguel has become a major attraction point for American retirees.

According to data from the Mexican Ministry of Welfare, more than 44% of Sanmiguelenses live in conditions of “moderate poverty”. Another 4% live in extreme poverty. Almost two out of every ten houses do not have drainage.

Jazmín Yanet Ramírez proudly shows BBC Mundo the house she opened earlier this year in the community of San Miguel Viejo, an area of ​​unpaved streets where tourists have not missed a thing.

“The people who come to the center of San Miguel do not realize that we are in the surroundings, that, to be honest, we have not been to that area for a long time because there are many tourists… It is a pity, because not all of us can enjoy it the same”, the Mint.

Terrace in San Miguel de Allende

Mark Gonzalez / BBC
There is another San Miguel beyond the “rooftops” frequented by foreigners.

She says that she and her husband no longer have to sleep in the same room with their three children as before. That they no longer get wet when it rains nor are they afraid that the roof will blow away in the wind. In the absence of drainage, her new home has a small septic tank and a rainwater collection system.

His house was built by Casita Linda, an NGO financed by American residents of San Miguel that in the last two decades has helped 130 families in the town.

Louise Gilliam, from Casita Linda, in front of the house built for Jazmín Yanet Ramírez.

Mark Gonzalez / BBC
Louise Gilliam, from Casita Linda, in front of the house built for Jazmín Yanet Ramírez and her family.

“It is a cliché to say that you want to give something back to the municipality that hosts you, but it is a very honest way of saying it. It’s a way to help people.”tells BBC Mundo Louise Gilliam, president of the organization with almost 20 years of life in San Miguel.

“Life here is good. The weather is perfect, it is less expensive to live here… I tell my children who are in Texas to sell their house and come here”, she replies when asked about how insecurity influences her life.

“I will never return to the United States”, ends up convinced

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